Open Access Research

Novel variations in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) may affect distribution of oligomeric complexes

Leah C Kottyan1, Jessica G Woo12, Mehdi Keddache1, Walter Banach1, Nancy A Crimmins12, Lawrence M Dolan12 and Lisa J Martin12*

Author Affiliations

1 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4006, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA

2 University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA

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SpringerPlus 2012, 1:66  doi:10.1186/2193-1801-1-66

Published: 14 December 2012

Abstract

Adiponectin is an obesity related protein that mediates the risk of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals with its anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. To date, five functional variations have been identified in the adiponectin gene. However, these variations are rare, and fail to fully explain adiponectin variability, suggesting unidentified causal variations exist. Thus, our objective was to identify novel, potentially functional amino acid-changing variations in ADIPOQ exonic regions and relate them to oligomeric forms of adiponectin in serum. We sequenced ADIPOQ exons in 30 adolescents chosen from a school-based cohort based on serum adiponectin and insulin levels. Four coding region changes were identified: a methionine initiation skip (MIS), P32L, R55C, and Y111H, of which R55C and Y111H have been previously identified. Individuals with the novel variations and R55C had low levels of adiponectin and decreased adiponectin oligomerization compared to adolescents with similar body mass index and insulin levels. Further, bioinformatic analysis predicted putative functionality of these variations. In our study, Y111H was unrelated to total circulating adiponectin or adiponectin oligomerization. Given the disruption of adiponectin oligomerization in the individuals with MIS, P32L, and R55C coding changes, these variations may lead to increased metabolic disease risk and warrant further examination in larger cohorts.

Keywords:
Type 2 Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Extreme phenotypes; Non-synonymous; Obesity; Genetic