Open Access Research

Hippocampal cellular loss after brief hypotension

Rafael E Chaparro12, Carolina Quiroga12, Gerardo Bosco4*, Diana Erasso2, Alessandro Rubini4, Devanand Mangar3, Andrea Parmagnani4 and Enrico M Camporesi1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA

2 Department of Neurosciences, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA

3 Tampa General Hospital, 1, Tampa General Hospital Circle, Tampa, FL 33606, USA

4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Physiology Lab, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 3, Padova, 35131, Italy

For all author emails, please log on.

SpringerPlus 2013, 2:23  doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-23

Published: 25 January 2013

Abstract

Brief episodes of hypotension have been shown to cause acute brain damage in animal models. We used a rat hemorrhagic shock model to assess functional outcome and to measure the relative neuronal damage at 1, 4 and 14 days post-injury (3 min of hypotension). All rats underwent a neurological assessment including motor abilities, sensory system evaluation and retrograde memory at post-hypotensive insult. Brains were harvested and stained for Fluorojade C and Nissl. Stereology was used to analyze Fluorojade C and Nissl stained brain sections to quantitatively detect neuronal damage after the hypotensive insult. Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad Prism 5 with the Bonferroni test at a 95% confidence interval after ANOVA. A Mixed Effect Model was used for the passive avoidance evaluation. Stereologically counted fluorojade positive cells in the hippocampus revealed significant differences in neuronal cell injury between control rats and rats that received 3 min of hypotension one day after insult. Quantification of Nissl positive neuronal cells showed a significant decrease in the number hippocampal cells at day 14. No changes in frontal cortical cells were evident at any time, no significative changes in neurological assessments as well. Our observations show that brief periods of hemorrhage-induced hypotension actually result in neuronal cell damage in Sprague–Dawley rats even if the extent of neuronal damage that was incurred was not significant enough to cause changes in motor or sensory behavior.

Keywords:
Hypotension; Rats; Hemorrhagic shock model; Neuronal damage