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Open Access Review

Bean common bacterial blight: pathogen epiphytic life and effect of irrigation practices

Alireza Akhavan13*, Masoud Bahar1, Homa Askarian1, Mohammad Reza Lak2, Abolfazl Nazemi1 and Zahra Zamani1

Author Affiliations

1 Dept. of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

2 Plant Pests and Diseases Res. Division, Agricultural and Natural Resources Res. Center, Arak, Iran

3 Dept. of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada

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SpringerPlus 2013, 2:41  doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-41

Published: 8 February 2013

Abstract

In recent years, bean common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) has caused serious yield losses in several countries. CBB is considered mainly a foliar disease in which symptoms initially appear as small water-soaked spots that then enlarge and become necrotic and usually bordered by a chlorotic zone. Xap epiphytic population community has a critical role in the development of the disease and subsequent epidemics. The epiphytic population of Xap in the field has two major parts; solitary cells (potentially planktonic) and biofilms which are sources for providing and refreshing the solitary cell components. Irrigation type has a significant effect on epiphytic population of Xap. The mean epiphytic population size in the field with an overhead sprinkler irrigation system is significantly higher than populations under furrow irrigation. A significant positive correlation between the epiphytic population size of Xap and disease severity has been reported in both the overhead irrigated (r=0.64) and the furrow irrigated (r= 0.44) fields.

Keywords:
Bean common Bacterial blight; Epiphytic life; Irrigation; Disease severity; Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli