Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Prospective evaluation of fluorescence-guided cystoscopy to detect bladder cancer in a high-risk population: results from the UroScreen-Study

Marcus Horstmann12, Severine Banek2, Georgios Gakis2, Tilman Todenhöfer2, Stefan Aufderklamm2, Joerg Hennenlotter2, Arnulf Stenzl2, Christian Schwentner2* and the UroScreen study group

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Urology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany

2 Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany

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SpringerPlus 2014, 3:24  doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-24

Published: 13 January 2014

Abstract

Objective

To prospectively evaluate the role of fluorescence-guided cystoscopy in a high-risk bladder cancer population undergoing screening based on a multi-marker panel of urine-tests (UroScreen-study).

Patients and methods

UroScreen was conducted as a validation study for tumor markers within the frame of a health surveillance program of workers with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Voluntary annual screens were done in 1,609 men. Cytology, quantitative NMP22® assay, and UroVysion (FISH) were applied to 7091 urine samples. Subjects with at least one positive urine-based tumor marker and/or persisting microscopic hematuria were offered fluorescence-guided (PDD) instead of white light cystoscopy. In case of suspicious findings histopathological evaluation by transurethral biopsy was performed. Data were statistically summarized and compared to tumors found by the standard algorithm of the screening study.

Results

Twenty-two subjects with a mean age of 58 years (39–72) underwent PDD cystoscopy. Of those 3 had positive NMP22 tests, 14 positive FISH tests and 9 suspicious cytologies. Two had persisting microscopic hematuria only. PDD cystoscopy revealed enhanced unifocal fluorescence in 14. All had subsequent transurethral biopsy or resection. In total, 1 urothelial carcinoma (pTaG1, low grade) was diagnosed. In the other participants urothelial cancer of the bladder was ruled out. Chronic cystitis was revealed in 8 of 14 biopsies. No higher detection rate was found using PDD than with the standard algorithm of the UroScreen study in which 17 tumors were detected by white light cystoscopy.

Conclusion

The use of PDD does not lead to a higher cancer detection rate in a high-risk screening population. Larger sample sizes may be needed to ultimately asses the value of PDD for bladder cancer screening.

Keywords:
Urothelial cancer of the bladder; Urine based tumor marker; Bladder cancer screening; NMP22; UroVysion; UroScreen; Cytology; Photodynamic diagnostics; Cystoscopy